What are the NACS, CCS and CHAdeMO connectors and who can use them?

Last updated: 31/10/2023


The North American Charging Standard (NACS) is an EV charging connector type developed by Tesla and opened for use to other manufacturers in 2022. It is not yet considered an industry standard but is currently under review with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) for such purposes. As of 2023, only Tesla vehicles are able to charge with a NACS connector. Several automakers have announced plans to release vehicles supporting this connector starting in 2025. NACS has not been released in Europe.

CCS connector

The “Combined Charging System” (CCS) is a standardized EV charging protocol that enables AC and DC charging using a single connector. It was developed by the Charging Interface Initiative (CharIN), a global consortium of EV manufacturers and suppliers, and certified by SAE.

The CCS protocol supports charging power levels from 3.7 kW up to 500 kW, depending on the capabilities of the EV and the charging station. This allows for a wide range of charging speeds.

Currently, most non-Tesla EVs in North America use the CCS Type 1 (CCS1) connector for DC fast charging. Tesla models may be able to charge at CCS1 stations using an adapter. Tesla models older than December 2021, may require a CCS retrofit in order to fast charge with NACS connectors. Tesla vehicles and ChargePoint stations in Europe use the CCS Type 2 (CCS2) fast charging standard.


CHAdeMO is a DC fast charging standard that has been used by some automakers in Asia. The CHAdeMO connector is available on ChargePoint Express stations.

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